Researchers, recently shown that an Artificial antibody could neutralize SARS-COV-2. This can prevent infection as well as treat Covid-19.
MECHANISM OF ATTACKING THE CELL
SARS-COV-2, The new corona virus enters into the cell using a receptor called Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2). ACE2 is present on the surface of cells in the airways or lungs. When a person inhales virus, Spike protein on the surface of virus bind to the ACE2 receptors and enters into cell and causes disease. It binds to it more tightly than previous 2002 SARS virus.
APPROACH TOWARDS DISCOVERY
- The researchers of Tulane University, developed an antibody that stops the virus from attacking ACE2 receptors and prevent infection. It could be beneficial for the people who cannot receive a vaccine for health reasons.
- The scientists created four antibodies each with different mutation to increase the ability of the lungs to bind to the virus.
- All of the antibodies worked against SARS-COV-2, but one called MDR504 was particularly effective.
- The virus bind more tightly to the particular antibody that it does to the ACE2 in the body.
- In the next phase of their experiments, the researchers tested the drugs in the cells having culture using a pseudo-virus very similar to SARS-COV-2. They found the MDR504 effectively neutralize the virus and blocked it from entering the cells.
- They next injected it into mice where it reached the lungs likely to stop the virus from entering the cells lining these organs.
The antibody remained in the body for a long time. After 6 days half of the injected content was still in circulation of mice. The drug performed dual purpose :-
1. They could be used to prevent infection.
2. Act as a treatment for Covid-19.
Based on data, It would be injected either once every 2 weeks or may be once a month. This might be suitable for patients receiving immunosuppressant treatment for an organ transport or an autoimmune condition.